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A look at the most important space missions of 2021

نگاهی به مهم‌ترین ماموریت‌های فضایی سال 2021 میلادی

The space plans for 2021 went against everyone’s expectations. Just like the rest of the world, space activities were plagued by the Corona epidemic. Missions such as Russia and Europe’s Rosalyn Franklin rover and NASA’s Artemis 1 mission were delayed, but SpaceX was able to send astronauts into space, and China brought samples of moon rock and soil to Earth.

But 2021 was even more exciting. Significant space explorations were made, and the James Webb Space Telescope was launched to its destination, the second Lagrangian point. Private space companies have taken important and influential steps in the space tourism industry, and it seems that this industry is expanding rapidly, and one day we will see daily trips to the borders of space. Therefore, we decided to review and review the six important space missions that took place in 2021.

James Webb Space Telescope

The space observatory, the most powerful infrared space telescope man-made to date, was launched on December 25 and is now somewhere beyond the moon. The telescope will be fully open in the coming days, and the telescope’s coolers will start working to reduce the temperature of the scientific instrument to -266 degrees Celsius.

The launch of the Web Telescope was repeatedly delayed and kept everyone waiting, but NASA sought to increase the chances of success of its $ 10 billion project and prevent any possible damage to the telescope. As we have seen, this telescope, mounted on the most powerful and reliable rocket in the world, Arian 5, successfully went into space and started its mission.

The last human look at the James Webb Space Telescope

The telescope, according to NASA, replaces the Hubble Space Telescope, and with its 6.5-meter gold mirror and new technologies, it can observe the farthest corners of the universe and tell us about the possibility of life on extrasolar planets.

It will take about a month for the Web Telescope to orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, and after six months it will start working on scientific instruments and ensure their health, and we will see the first images from this telescope. .

Martian Triple Missions

Earlier this year, Mars hosted three major space missions from NASA, the United Arab Emirates and China. The UAE Hope Orbiter successfully reached Mars orbit and has inspired all Middle Eastern astronomers and engineers. The orbiter studies the Martian atmosphere and answers astronomers’ questions about the production of hydrogen and oxygen in the planet’s atmosphere.

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Orbiter of Hope

China’s Tiananmen-1 mission, which included orbiters, astronauts and astronauts, was also successfully completed, making China the second country to successfully reach the surface of Mars. NASA’s Perseverance Mars rover arrived on the planet with an Ingenuity Martian helicopter. The two missions are set to explore microbial life in the past or even now on Mars. All of these missions arrived on Mars in February, and the Chinese astronaut touched the surface of Mars in April.

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Martian Tianon-1

Sending a genius helicopter to other planets and flying it in a different atmosphere was a very challenging and exciting task. Due to the low concentration of Mars’s atmosphere relative to Earth’s atmosphere, it was very unlikely that we would be able to fly a helicopter on this planet, and this was the first time we had performed such a mission. But the first successful flight of genius on Mars showed that with accurate calculations and predictions, missions could be carried out beyond imagination.

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Endurance astronaut and genius helicopter

DART Mission

In July of this year, NASA launched the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft on November 24, and as the name implies, it was supposed to change the path of the two asteroids. The Dart project was part of NASA’s Planetary Security Program, which is testing new technologies to protect the Earth from collisions with solar-purpose planets. Dart was the first example of NASA’s collision technique to change the asteroid’s trajectory.

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Your mission

The dart spacecraft targeted a dual asteroid that collided with the smaller dual asteroid and made an imperceptible change in its orbit around the larger asteroid, reorienting it to Earth and sending it away from our planet.

Lucy Mission

The mission boarded the United States Launch and Launch Coalition (ULA) Atlas 5 rocket on October 16, 2021, to explore the asteroids around Jupiter, known as Trojan Asteroids. Astronomers believe that these interplanetary rock objects are among the first building blocks of the universe, and by studying them, one can find some of the secrets of planetary evolution.

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Lucy Mission

Lucy’s spacecraft is like a cosmological archaeologist who is supposed to study fossils left over from the formation of the solar system and possibly tell us about the origin of life on planet Earth. The Lucy mission is part of NASA’s Discovery Rogram, which focuses on low-cost planetary missions.

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Lucy Fossil

Lucy’s name comes from the famous fossil of one of the ancestors of man, whose discovery revolutionized the understanding of human evolution. Now we hope that Lucy’s mission can make such an contribution to understanding the evolution of the solar system and the overall length of the planetary systems in the universe.

China Space Station

On April 29 this year, the Chinese space agency (CNSA) was able to put the first piece of its space station, Tian Hee – meaning Harmony of Paradise – into Earth orbit. The main module of this station is 16 meters, and China plans to complete its space station next year by connecting the two modules “Ventian” and “Mengtian” to the main module.

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China Space Station

In addition, China was able to bring astronauts to the station on several missions to develop it. China is scheduled to complete the T-shaped space station by 2025 and continue to operate alongside the International Space Station.

The space station will eventually have a mass of 80 to 100 tons, which is one-fifth the mass of the International Space Station and roughly equal to Russia’s Mir Space Station. With its independent space station, China hopes to conduct much-needed space research and extend the mission beyond its estimated lifespan.

Space competition between the world’s largest private space companies

This summer, a rivalry broke out between the well-known private space companies Blue Origin, Virgin Galactic Virgin Space and SpaceX, who will bring the first space travelers to our line of work sooner.

On June 11, 2021, Virgin Galactic took its passengers into space on SpaceShipTwo and was the first company to take space travelers to the extraterrestrial boundary in this competition. Of course, before the flight of Richard Branson and the crew members of the Unity22 mission, Jeff Bezos had announced that he would fly to space and have a short trip. However, Branson and the rest of the crew were able to claim the title of first passengers.

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Unity22 crew members

On July 20, 2021, Blue Origin, a private space company led by Jeff Bezos, made its first commercial space flight with the New Zealand manned rocket.

The mission crew included 18-year-old Oliver Damen, 82-year-old Mary Funk, Jeff Bezos and his brother. In this mission, the youngest and oldest business travelers in history went to space together. The space trip lasted only ten minutes, after which its passengers returned to Earth with three parachutes.

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Blue Origin manned mission crew members

On September 15, 2021, SpaceX made its first commercial flight on a mission called Inspiration 4. The mission went into space with a Crudragon capsule aboard a Falcon 9 rocket, bringing four American citizens to space.

Prior to the mission, SpaceX used its Crudragon capsule to deliver astronauts and space cargo to the International Space Station. But since the mission did not go to the space station, SpaceX removed the capsule junction from the body of the Crowdragon and replaced it with a glass arch so that passengers on the flight could look at our only home in the universe through this hatch.

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Inspiration crew members4

With the flight of Jeff Bezos and Richard Branson into space, the US Federal Aviation Administration revised its rules to deny the “astronaut wing” badge to any passenger on commercial flights, making it more difficult to identify astronauts on a commercial flight. .

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