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Breaking the laws of physics in broad daylight: The story of two controversial experiments in the field of particle physics

نقض قوانین فیزیک در روز روشن: ماجرای دو آزمایش جنجال برانگیز در حوزه فیزیک ذرات

Scientists say that if the results are obtained and analyzed correctly, any other calculations in the field of particle physics that have been done so far will be invalidated. Preliminary results from two experiments suggest that physicists’ general views on cosmic problems may be fundamentally problematic, and that this is a perspective that confuses particle physics.

During a long experiment in the United States and Europe, the smallest particles did not behave as expected during the two experiments. The confusing results of these two experiments (if properly proven) reveal the major problems of physicists’ attitudes in describing and understanding the approach of the universe on a subatomic scale.

“Discovering these facts can greatly enhance our understanding of the world today,” said Matthew McCullough, a theoretical physicist with the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

This regulation is known as the standard model, which was developed about 50 years ago. To date, the results of experiments that have been performed over and over again have shown that the interpretations of particles and the constituent and governing forces of the universe are correct; But now a new force is at stake.

“New particles and new physics can go beyond our research,” says Alexei Petrov, a physicist at Vienna State University. “It’s very exciting.”

“The magnetic field around a transient subatomic particle is not what it should be in a standard model,” Fermileb said. This is a supplement to the results of a recent month of Large Hadron Collider published by CERN. “The collider achieved a surprising amount of particles due to the high-velocity collisions.”

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Petrov, who did not take part in any of the experiments, was skeptical when evidence of a large hadron collider first appeared in 2014. But with more comprehensive results, he added that he is now cautious. David Kaplan, a theoretical physicist at Johns Hopkins University, said the purpose of the experiments was to separate the particles and discover interesting details inside them that were related to the particles and the distances between them:

“Mysteries do not live only in matter, they live in something that seems to fill all space and time. These are quantum fields; “We are creating energy in a vacuum and watching its output.”

Both sets of results include a transient, strange particle called a muon; Muon is a heavy electron that revolves around the center of the atom. But muons are not part of the atom, they are unstable and usually only exist for two microseconds. After the discovery of muons in cosmic rays in 1936, scientists were so puzzled that a famous physicist asked, “Who gave this order?”

“This has astonished physicists from the very beginning of the study,” said Graziano Venanzoni, an experimental physicist at the Italian National Laboratory who is one of the best scientists in the American FermiLab laboratory.

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The experiment sends mice around a magnetic path that holds the particles stable enough for researchers to closely monitor the situation. Preliminary results show that the magnetic “rotation” of the capillaries is one-eleventh less than that predicted in the standard model. This may not seem like much, but for particle physicists, it is too large, too large to distort current understanding.

Researchers will need another year or two to complete the analysis of the results of all 14-meter cycles. “If the results remain unchanged, it will be a great discovery,” Venenzoni said.

At CERN, the largest atomic fission device, physicists collide protons separately to see what happens. One of several separate experiments on a particle instrument measures what is done when particles called a beauty or low quarks collide. The standard model predicts that crushing a beautiful quark could result in the production of an equal number of electrons and muons.

“It’s like thousands of taps or dashes with a coin, so that eventually we have an equal number of taps and lines,” said Chris Parks, head of the Large Hadron Collider experiment. But this is not what should have happened at that moment.

Researchers at Syracuse University said they looked at data from several years and thousands of accidents and found that they were 15 percent different and had significantly more electrons than muons.

None of the experiments have yet been read as a formal discovery, as they may be statistically strange. Researchers have said that conducting experiments more than once can lead to an extremely rigorous statistical case for physics in a year or two to welcome it as a discovery.

“If the results do not change, any other calculation made in the world of particle physics will change so that this is no longer nonsense, but misinformation,” Kaplan said. Kaplan explained that there may be a particle or force that has not yet been discovered and can explain this strange situation.

Or it could be mistakes like what happened in 2011; A strange discovery that a particle called a neutrino seemed to be moving faster than light jeopardized the model, but it turned out to be the result of a loose electrical connection in the experiment. “We checked all the connections in Kabul and did what we could to verify our information. It has boosted our confidence a lot, but you will never realize it,” Stone said. . »

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