Physicists have been searching for the mysteries of the universe since time immemorial; But over the years, recognizing the events that led to the formation of a world of this magnitude in a fraction of a second is still an obscure subject to which they are unable to answer.
But now a scientist believes he knows why providing a physical description of inflation (What is inflation? You will know later) does not work cosmically: the world will not allow us to. In fact, the scientist puts forward a new hypothesis about the young universe: “The observer must be prevented from directly observing the smallest cosmic structures.”
In other words, existing physical descriptions with limited tools may never be able to model and explain cosmic inflation; So scientists have to come up with a new solution.
But why can’t physical descriptions justify this phenomenon? This new hypothesis, which is based on incomplete ideas and information, has pointed the finger at certain features of cosmic inflation models. These models of cosmic inflation have very, very small oscillations in space-time that make them larger.
But we do not have a complete physical theory of small fluctuations, so any inflation model that has this feature (which includes almost all of them) will never work. So move on to string theory, which could be the key to explaining the secrets of inflation.
Observations of the large-scale structures of the universe and the light left by the big bang revealed the fact about the early universe that our universe probably expanded very rapidly over a period of time. This remarkable event, known as cosmic inflation, made the world larger and wider in a fraction of a trillion times.
During the process of expansion, inflation caused the universe to become slightly uneven. As inflation unfolded, the smallest random quantum oscillations (these fluctuations exist in the space-time structure) became much larger, so that in some areas the density of matter was very high but in others it was relatively low.
Eventually, the microscopic events became larger and larger, in some cases causing the end of one world to expand into other parts. Millions and billions of years later, these slight differences in density became the stars, galaxies, and large cosmic structures.
Astronomers are highly skeptical of cosmic inflation; they do not think that something similar to cosmic inflation occurred in the early moments of the universe when it was less than a second old; Even if they know this, they still do not know the cause of inflation and do not understand what has stimulated inflation. On the other hand, there is no information on the duration of inflation from start to stop; In other words, physicists have not been able to give a complete physical description of the event.
In most inflation models, the fluctuations start to increase on a very small scale to reach significant differences. But how small are these fluctuations? These oscillations are also smaller than the Planck length, which is approximately equal to 1035-× 1.6 (.34) This is a scale for competing gravity with other fundamental forces of nature; on this scale we need an integrated descriptive theory in physics that does not currently exist.
Beyond the Planck scale
“The TCC is a new principle that limits practical cosmologies,” said Robert Brandenberger, a Swiss-Canadian theoretical cosmologist and professor at McGill University in Canada. In his view, the TCC, an observer on a scale the size of ours, can never “see” what is happening on the extra-plan scale.
This concept implies that everything that lives on extra-planetary scales will never pass into the macroscopic and larger world, even if we have a theory of quantum gravity; This is a wake-up call for the inflation model.
Most theories of inflation are based on a theory called the “effective field.” Because we in physics lack the unifying theory of high energy scales and small scales (such as inflation), physicists are trying to make lower energy versions to advance.
But for the TCC, this trend still does not work; Because when we use them to build inflation models, the inflation process occurs so fast that it exposes extra-planar structures to large-scale observations.
Given all this, physicists are thinking about the question, “Should we take a completely different approach to the early universe?” They are surprised.
Out of the swamp
Cosmology combines string gas, quantum physics, and classical physics under one roof; Therefore, relying on string theory can be a possible perspective for modeling the early world. In the filament gas model, the inflation period is very mild and the world never experiences very rapid inflation.
On the other hand, oscillations smaller than Planck length are never exposed to large scales. With these descriptions, the physics of the Planck subscale never grows to be observable, so the TCC will not be violated. However, filament gas models still do not have enough detail and information to be tested against observable evidence of cosmic inflation.
TCC is related to another link between inflation theory and other physical theories such as string.
String theory predicts a large number of latent universes, but our particular universe (with the sum of all forces and particles and the rest of physics) shows only one. Most base-level inflation models are not compatible with string theory; But this has to do with what string theorists call a “swamp.” Possible regions of the world are not realistic by natural principles.
TCC can be a state of non-acceptance of inflation in the lagoon case. One can still hope to present a model based on traditional theories in accordance with the TCC that is outside the quagmire of string theory. But if the cosmic censorship hypothesis is proven to be true, the models available to physicists will be greatly limited.
If inflation can continue to advance long enough and cosmic inflation can work (imagine inflating a balloon slowly enough to stop inflating before it explodes), the seeds we can plant today are structures. They will become huge.
At present, cosmic censorship is not just a proven hypothesis and follows string theory, the string theory itself has not yet been proven (in fact, this theory is not yet complete and predictable); But such ideas are always useful for advancing science because physicists still do not fully understand the theory of cosmic inflation. Therefore, anything that can help clarify this idea is welcome.