How do dark matter-deficient galaxies survive?

چگونه کهکشان‌هایی با کمبود ماده تاریک زنده می‌مانند؟

A team of researchers recently found seven dwarf galaxies with a lack of dark matter that survived despite what was thought to be.

«Joanna Thompson” in Schedule “60 seconds»To investigate this issue will pay.

In 2018, a group of astronomers from the university «ییلThey discovered something strange: two galaxies that had almost no dark matter! This observation caused a stir in scientific circles because everything astrophysicists seemed to know about how galaxies formed was inaccurate and inadequate.

But researchers have recently discovered a mechanism that could possibly explain the survival of galaxies with or without dark matter.

In astronomy matter to دو There is a face: Dark matter And Baryonic matter. Baryon matter is the common substance we know in everyday life, it is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons and can enter into known chemical and magnetic reactions.

Unlike baryon matter, the components of dark matter are unknown – at least we do not know – and can only be detected by gravitational effects. In other words, dark matter does not participate in any chemical or magnetic reactions.

Following Thompson’s conversation with «Betsy Adams“Astronomer at Radio Astronomy Research Center”AstronWe read from the Netherlands and some other astronomers.

“The point of dark matter is that we can not see it as ordinary matter – baryon matter,” Adams said. There is no radiation from it, so no light from it reaches us and it cannot be observed with a telescope. What we see from this world are just baryons – ordinary matter. So to deduce the existence of dark matter, we look for its gravitational effects in space.

Thompson: “Dark matter acts like an invisible glue that holds galaxies together. “About 85% of every average galaxy is made up of dark matter, and without it, most galaxies would not be able to form – at least, astronomers think.”

A galaxy without dark matter can be compared to a storm without wind! So where did the galaxies without the dark matter that Yale astronomers found come from? How are they formed? These questions pay attention «Jorge Moreno»College Astronomer«PomonaAttracted in California.

Moreno: “It was really weird and amazing. “All our beliefs and equations are shattered.”

Moreno is part of a team working on a large, highly detailed computer program designed to simulate fused galaxies without dark matter.

Moreno: “This is what we call it”Cosmic Simulation»می‌نامیم. “We are simulating a large part of the world – the small world on our computer!”

Thompson: “This simulation follows the standard model of physics. In this model, dark matter plays a key role in the formation of galaxies. “However, many physicists still believe that the standard model may not be correct.”

Moreno: “A group of physicists were very happy with this discovery. They believe that it is time to get rid of dark matter – even any theory that believes in the existence of dark matter – but how do we justify the other galaxies that dark matter plays a major role in shaping? “We may need to reform the laws of physics.”

Thompson goes to «های بوویو“Theoretical Particle Physicist at the University”RiversideCalifornia goes.

“My group was also interested in this,” Boyo said. So, we wrote an article that might need a new physics – which goes beyond the standard model of physics. “In fact, we were trying to explain the existence of galaxies without dark matter.”

Dark matter deficiency

Thompson: “Moreno’s simulations provided a solution to this problem, without completely ignoring standard physics. what is your opinion? His team focused on massive galaxies. But when they looked very closely at the small dwarf galaxies – they simulated them – a surprise appeared. “They found that seven dwarf galaxies were completely devoid of dark matter.”

Each of these galaxies orbited a very massive galaxy with a lack of dark matter – just as the moon orbits the earth. Moreno and his team realized that these galaxies were not without dark matter from the beginning.

In other words, they formed with the help of dark matter and lost this mysterious substance over time, so that they can now be considered galaxies with a lack of dark matter. The team started their simulations with a different goal, but came up with this in the course of their studies.

“Congratulations to the authors of this article,” Boyo said. This is very exciting. But we must be realistic. “Standard physics is not something that can be easily ignored.”

The next step in trying to solve this problem is to confirm Moreno’s results with observations.

Estimates expressed to 30% Central galaxies in the medium mass range should be dark matter-deficient galaxies. There is a lot of work to be done to confirm this. Tests should be expanded.

Moreno, of Mexican descent, called on his tribesmen to name the seven dwarf galaxies. Moreno called these galaxies “Bird»،«deer»،«long hair»،«Color»،«Wild potatoes»،«the wolf” And “Blue” remembers.

“The disappearance of dark matter after the galaxy formed is another mysterious point that my study team and I intend to spend more time understanding,” Moreno concluded.

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