Parker Solar Probe: The first spacecraft to touch the sun

کاوشگر خورشیدی پارکر: اولین فضاپیمایی که خورشید را لمس کرد

In this article An Overview of the Parker Solar Probe, We have the most powerful probe of this burning star. NASA Parker Probe 12 August 2018 With missiles «Delta IVWas thrown into space. The mission of this solar probe is to study the sun in detail, which no spacecraft has ever been able to study.

According to a NASA statement, Parker was the first spacecraft to fly Eighth Fly yourself in April 28, 2021 It moved in the outer atmosphere of the sun and so-called managed to touch the solar corona.

Parker during his seven years, 24 It will orbit the sun and will be seven times closer to this glowing star than any other spacecraft.

According to the European Space Agency «ESAParker Solar Probe Named «Eugene Parker»Pioneering astrophysicist for the first time«Solar wind»In the year 1958 Raised, named.

Parker visited the probe during construction and witnessed its launch. He thus became the first person to witness the launch of the spacecraft of the same name. Professor Parker in March 15, 2022 At the age of 94 Died at the age of.

In the decade 1950, Professor Parker proposed several concepts for how stellar energy is released – including the sun. He described a complex system of plasma, fields, and magnetic particles in which the solar wind is known as a cascade of energy flowing from the sun.

Initially, the mission was described as “Solar Probe PlusWas named. But in the year 2017Just a few days before birth 90 years old The NASA scientist named the mission Parker to honor his efforts.

«Thomas Zorbuchen“This is the first time NASA has named a spacecraft after a living person,” the deputy director of NASA’s Science Mission in Washington said in a statement. “This is a testament to the importance of his collection of works, which have been very inspiring.”

“The solar probe is moving into an area of ​​space that has never been explored before,” Parker said at the time. It’s so exciting that we can take a closer look at the sun. “I am sure there will be surprises.”

«Nicola Fox»Parker Solar Probe Project Scientist from University Applied Physics Laboratory«APL“The Parker probe will answer questions about the physics of the sun that we’re over,” he said Six “We have been looking for them for decades.”

“The spacecraft will find out why the solar corona is much hotter than its surface,” he said. “We are very proud to be part of Parker’s research team.”

Parker Solar Probe Speed

Parker on 21 November 2021 Tenth Made its flight to the sun. The sun’s powerful gravity caused Parker to accelerate the mission Five hundred and eighty-six thousand kilometers per hour Reach. This is the fastest speed a probe has ever experienced.

NASA predicts Parker will travel at a speed of about as close as possible to future missions to the Sun. Seven hundred thousand kilometers per hour Also experience.

Solar Probe Path

Parker is closer to the Sun than any other spacecraft so far, and in almost a lifetime Seven Year-old will continue to try to reduce this gap.

Parker Explorer

“The probe needs the planet’s gravitational pull to get close to the sun.”ناهید” has it. To this process «Gravitational assistance maneuver” Called. In this maneuver, the gravity of the planet Venus helps to change the direction and speed of the probe in space.

According to “APL»Parker during his lifetime, Seven Venus will use gravity to gradually reduce its distance from the sun and eventually to the distance 6.16 million Kilometers of this burning star will go – Seven Equal to the distance from Mercury to the Sun.

Parker and the scorching sun

When the probe reaches its closest distance to the sun, its solar shields are at a temperature close to 2600 Fahrenheit degree (1400 Degrees Celsius) will be encountered.

Surprisingly, the spacecraft’s scientific instruments are protected against this scorching temperature and around the temperature 85 Fahrenheit degree (30 Degrees Celsius) remain.

Parker’s goals

The Parker solar probe closely studies the sun to understand how heat and energy fluctuate in the sun’s atmosphere and affect various processes, such as the solar wind.

This is a solar probe Three main goals Follows:

The flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and the solar wind.

Structure and dynamics of plasma and magnetic fields in solar wind sources.

Mechanisms of acceleration and transport of energetic particles.

Parker Solar Probe

The sun is the main source of light and heat for the earth, but it does not affect our planet in these two ways alone. According to NASA, the solar wind is a collection of charged particles that flow out of a burning star. It flows at speeds over One million miles per hour (400 kilometers per second) Passes by the ground.

Disturbances in the solar wind can alter the earth’s magnetic field, which can result in “Spatial climate” Cited.

Spatial climate is significantly affected by solar winds and other eruptions such as solar flares and corona mass ejections. At peak times – when the solar cycle is at its peak – space weather can be dangerous for Earth communications, satellites and even astronauts in space.

The Parker Solar Probe helps scientists learn more about the active mechanisms of this burning star. In this way, they will be able to improve their forecasts of space and prepare for changes in the activities of the sun.

website “APL Parker Solar Probe“Unless we can explain the processes of the sun and its surroundings well, we can not accurately predict the effects of space climate, which can have a devastating effect on Earth,” they write.

Parker equipment

Parker Explorer Four important components has it:

System “SWEAPWhich directly examines the details of the plasma in the Sun’s atmosphere. This system counts the most abundant particles of solar wind and measures the properties of electrons, protons and helium ions.

Parker Explorer

System “WISPR»Or a wide field illustrator who has three-dimensional images of the solar corona and«هلیوسفر»Registers. This is actually done with the aim of observing the solar wind and the shocks that come from it to the structures of the environment and the space around the earth.

“This system as the spacecraft passes by the planet.”زهره” In the year 2020, Detected a glowing edge around the planet. “It may be a phenomenon called ‘NASA,'” NASA said in a statement.Night Shine“It is caused by light emitted from oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere.”

System “FIELDS– The study of magnetic fields – which measure the shock waves distributed in the plasma of the solar atmosphere.

The ISIS system uses a mass spectrometer to study charged particles near the probe and make a list of elements in the solar atmosphere.

Together, these systems give Parker The most powerful solar probe Have turned. It is interesting to know this mission at the beginning of the year 1958 It was suggested, but the technologies of that time were not so advanced. That’s why scientists have been doing it for the last few years.

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