A group of American and Canadian astronomers, in an article published in the journal Nature and Nature Astronomy and presented the results at the virtual meeting of the American Astronomical Society, announced that for the first time and certainly succeeded in discovering a flare magnet in another galaxy.
Magnets, which are objects of supermagnetic stars, have always been thought to be responsible for some of the most energetic explosions in nearby galaxies, but so far no one has been able to prove this hypothesis. Astronomers have previously observed flare magnets in the Milky Way galaxy, but these bright objects are so bright that it is impossible to look closely. Short observations were also recorded in other galaxies, but none were ever as accurate.
According to these scientists, on April 15, 2020, the first sign of this magnet appeared to explode from gamma rays and X-rays. Five space telescopes, including the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Mars Odyssey Orbiter, observed the explosion and provided scientists with enough information to track the source of the explosion.
Studies have shown that the source of this X-ray and gamma-ray burst is located in the NGC 253 galaxy, or 11.4 million light-years from Earth.
At first, astronomers thought that this explosion was a type of gamma ray burst, or GRB, usually caused by collisions with neutron stars or other destructive cosmic events. But this sign was a bit strange for a short GRB. Because in just 2 milliseconds of time, it quickly reached its maximum brightness and then retreated for another 50 milliseconds, and it seemed that the afterglow of about 140 milliseconds was over. As the signal faded, some telescopes detected light fluctuations that changed faster than a millisecond.
“Ordinary short gamma-ray bursts that result from the collision of neutron stars do not change that much, but in the case of our galaxy’s glowing magnetic stars, it must be said that when these objects rotate, their rays rotate.” “They come and go.”
After recording this initial event, the Fermi Telescope was surprisingly able to detect gamma rays with energies higher than one gigaelectronvolt, which arrived four minutes after the initial explosion, while none of the known JRB sources were able to do so. They are not explosive.
“In a nearby galaxy, we discovered a magnet that looked like it was masked, and we removed the mask from its face,” explains Kevin Carly of the University of California, Berkeley.
The researchers believe the flares they observed were the result of massive earthquakes measuring 1,000 trillion or 10 times 27 times larger than the 9.5 magnitude earthquake in 1960 in Chile. An earthquake, or Starquak, is an earthquake-like earthquake with the difference that it occurs in magnets.
To date, scientists have identified only 23 magnets, and on these objects magnetic stars have recorded three constellations in 1979, 1998 and 2004, respectively. The results of this new discovery now suggest that at least some of the symptoms that appear to be short GRBs are actually emitted by heavier flares and, therefore, may be the result of a seismic event.
What is a magnet?
A magnetar (magnetar, which stands for “Magnetic Star”) is a neutron star that has a massive magnetic field billions of times the Earth’s magnetic field, from which abundant and very intense electromagnetic radiation, especially X-rays and X-rays, decays. Very rarely radio frequencies are obtained.
Robert Duncan and Christoph Thompson first proposed theories about these magnetic star objects in 1992, and a decade later, the magnetic hypothesis was used as a physical explanation for known objects such as “X-ray abnormal pulsation” and “repetitive soft gamma”. The astronomical community was accepted globally.
When a star collapses into a neutron star during a supernova explosion, its magnetic field intensifies, and as its size halves, its magnetic field quadruples. Duncan and Thompson calculated that when the magnetic field of a neutron star, which is normally about 10 to the power of 8 Tesla, reaches more than 10 to the power of 11 Tesla equals 10 to the power of 15 Gauss, the neutron star becomes more magnetic.
A supernova loses about 10 percent of its mass during an explosion. Larger stars that are between 10 and 30 times the mass of the Sun and do not turn into black holes following an explosion lose about 80 percent of their mass in such an event. It is believed that about 1 in 10 supernovae becomes magnets instead of neutron and supernova stars.
This happens when the star rotates very fast and has a very strong magnetic force. Scientists also believe that the magnetic field is the result of a convective motion of hot matter into the neutron star’s core, which occurs about the first 10 seconds of a star’s life.
In the outermost layers of the magnet, stresses due to the force lines of the star’s magnetic field can lead to asterisks. These seismic waves are extremely energetic and emit strong X-ray and gamma rays. The active life of the magnet is very short. Thus, strong magnetic fields decay and decay after about 10,000 years. For this reason, it is thought that the Milky Way galaxy is likely to be full of dormant magnets.
Examples of known magnets
- Magnet’s 4U 0142 + 61 13,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Saturn
- Magnet SGR 0418 + 5729 at a distance of about 6,500 light years from Earth with a magnetic field of one million and one billion Gauss
- Magnet SGR 1806-20 50,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Sagittarius
- Magnet’s 1E 1048.1-5937 9,000 light-years away in the constellation Pisces. The star from which this magnet was formed had a mass about 30 to 40 times the mass of the Sun.