The story of the evolution of extrasolar planets – How do mini-Neptunes become super-Earths?

داستان تکامل سیارات فراخورشیدی – مینی نپتون‌ها چطور به ابَرزمین‌ها تبدیل می‌شوند؟

New research shows that some extrasolar planets in the atmosphere are “velvety or fluffy” – the ratio of mass to volume or density of these planets is very low. Therefore, it causes them to assume the mentioned state. Some scientists call these planets plump planets – this outer layer is destroyed in the process that we will explain later, causing the planet to look like a world. the earth Become.

The story of the discovery and evolution of extrasolar planets

In the 1990s, astronomers discovered the existence of planets outside solar system Confirmed. These planets, known as extrasolar planets, are a fascinating subject in modern astronomy. Astronomers believe these planets could be man’s second home in the universe – after Earth. Likewise, spacecraft, observatories and satellites such asکپلر» NASA And “TESSThey have studied the sky with the aim of finding these planets. Astronomers look to nearby stars to find extrasolar planets. When the light of a star is blocked for a while and then comes back to us, it means that a planet was passing in front of that star. So it can be assumed that one Extrasolar planet There is in that area.

So far, astronomers have collected thousands of footprints from extrasolar planets. This information helps them to determine the mass range – size range – of these planets. One way to determine the size range of these planets is to compare them to our familiar planets in the solar system. In general, extrasolar planets can be divided into “super-Earths” and “mini-Neptunes” in terms of size range.

Some of these planets are small, about the size of Mars, and have a rocky surface. Others are large gas planets such as Saturn or Jupiter. There is a third category whose planets bear no resemblance in size and sex to the planets of the solar system. For example, extrasolar planets 3.9 times the size of Earth.

“Michael Zhang” is the original author of this Study “Stars of this size are able to swell like a baking cake, resulting in more radiation,” said a student at the California Institute of Technology. This more radiation not only reduces their mass, but is also thought to cause evaporation Atmosphere Be a planet too. We suspect the process of evaporation of the mini-Neptune atmosphere. “Because the planet’s atmosphere is so thin that it dilutes rapidly under this process.”

Extrasolar planets

Researchers are scrutinizing the idea from data from the Telescope Space Telescope.HableAnd the WM Keck Observatory in Hawaii. In this study, four mini-Neptunes were examined. Researchers found two mini-Neptunes with letters «HD-63433c” And “TOI 560.01At distances of 73 and 103 light-years from Earth, respectively, have sharp gaseous changes in their atmosphere – this could be a sign that the atmosphere is evaporating or thinning.

“The velocity of the gases provides evidence that the atmosphere is evaporating, or so-called evaporating,” Zhang said. The observed helium travels around TOI 560.01 at a speed of 20 km / s. “The hydrogen around the HD 63433c travels at a speed of 50 kilometers per second.”

“The gravity of these mini-neptons is not strong enough to hold such volatile gases in its atmosphere,” he added. These high velocities represent the volatile atmosphere of these planets. The radius of the gas layer around the extrasolar planet TOI 560.01 is about – at least – 3.5 times the radius of the planet itself. In the case of HD 63433c, it can be said that the radius of its gas layer is about 12 times the radius of the planet itself. “On the other hand, other scenarios that try to describe such a phenomenon cannot be ruled out.”

“As scientists,” said Heather Knatson, a planetary scientist at the California Institute of Technology. Planetary science We are used to expecting strange things. Our world is full of strange things that surprise physicists at every moment. The solar system is full of mysteries that have not yet been discovered. “We hope to better understand the mini-Neptune story by collecting more data and performing more advanced analyzes.”

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